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Ausich, W. I., Kammer, T. W., Rhenberg, E. C. and Wright, D. F., in press. Early phylogeny of crinoids within the pelmatozoan clade. Palaeontology, , .

Bauer, J. E., Waters, J. A. and Sumrall, C. D., in press. Redescription of Macurdablastus and redefinition of Eublastoidea as a clade of Blastoidea (Echinodermata). Palaeontology, , .

Cohen, B. L. and Pisera, A., in press. Crinoid phylogeny: new interpretation of the main Permo-Triassic divergence, comparisons with echinoids and brachiopods, and EvoDevo interpretations of major morphological variations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, , .

Cole, S. R., in press. Hierarchical controls on extinction selectivity across the diplobathrid crinoid phylogeny. Paleobiology, , .
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Cole, S. R., Ausich, W. A. and Wilson, M. A., in press. A Hirnantian holdover from the Late Ordovician mass extinction: phylogeny and biogeography of a new anthracocrinid crinoid from Estonia. Papers in Palaeontology, , .

Fau, M. and Villier, L., in press. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Forcipulatacea (Echinodermata: Asteroidea): insights from ossicle morpholog. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, , .

Nardin, E. and Bohaty, J., in press. A new pleurocystitid blastozoan from the Middle Devonian of the Eifel (Germany) and its phylogenetic importance. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, , .

Souto, C., Mooi, R., Martins, L., Menegola, C. and Marshall, C. R., in press. Homoplasy and extinction: the phylogeny of cassidulid echinoids (Echinodermata). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, , .

Sumrall, C. D., Heredia, S., Rodríguez, C. M., and Mestre, A. I., in press. The first report of South American edrioasteroids and the paleoecology and ontogeny of rhenopyrgid echinoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, , .

Thompson, J. R., Mirantsev, G. V., Petsios, E. and Bottjer, D. J., in press. Phylogenetic analysis of the Archaeocidaridae and Palaeozoic Miocidaridae (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) and the origin of crown group echinoids. Papers in Palaeontology, , .


Palopolo, E. E., Brezina, S. S., Casadio, S., Griffin, M. and Santillana, S., 2021. A new zoroasterid asteroid from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 66, 301-318.

Paul, C. R. C., 2021. New insights into the origin and relationships of blastoid echinoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 66, 41-62.


Cole, S. R., 2019. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of diplobathrid crinoids (Echinodermata). Palaeontology, 62, 357-373.
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Rahman, I. A., Thompson, J. R., Briggs, D. E. G., Siveter, D. J., Siveter, D. J. and Sutton, M. D., 2019. A new ophiocistioid with soft-tissue preservation from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstatte, and the evolution of the holothurian body plan. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 286, 20182792.

Topper, T. P., Guo, J.-F., Clausen, S., Skovsted, C. B. and Zhang, Z.-F., 2019. A stem group echinoderm from the basal Cambrian of China and the origins of Ambulacrari. Nature Communications, 10, 1366.


Thompson, J. R., Hu, S.-X., Zhang, Q.-Y., Petsios, E., Cotton, L. J., Huang, J.-Y., Zhou, C.-Y., Wen, W. and Bottjer, D. J., 2018. A new stem group echinoid from the Triassic of China leads to a revised macroevolutionary history of echinoids during the end-Permian mass extinction. Royal Society Open Science, 5, 171548.


Bauer, J. E., Sumrall, C. D. and Waters, J. A., 2017. Hydrospire morphology and implications for blastoid phylogeny. Journal of Paleontology, 91, 847-857.

Cole, S. R., 2017. Phylogeny and morphologic evolution of the Ordovician Camerata (Class Crinoidea, Phylum Echinodermata). Journal of Paleontology, 91, 815-828.

Nardin, E., Lefebvre, B., Fatka, O., Nohejlova, M., Kasicka, L., Sinagl, M. and Szabad, M., 2017. Evolutionary implications of a new transitional blastozoan echinoderm from the middle Cambrian of the Czech Republic. Journal of Paleontology, 91, 672-684.

Wright, D. F., 2017. Bayesian estimation of fossil phylogenies and the evolution of early to middle Paleozoic crinoids (Echinodermata). Journal of Paleontology, 91, 799-814.

Wright, D. F., 2017. Phenotypic innovation and adaptive constraints in the evolutionary radiation of Palaeozoic crinoids. Scientific Reports, 7, 13745.


Thuy, B. and Stohr, S., 2016. A new morphological phylogeny of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) accords with molecular evidence and renders microfossils accessible for cladistics. PLOS ONE, 11, e0156140.


Smith, A. B. and Zamora, S., 2013. Cambrian spiral-plated echinoderms from Gondwana reveal the earliest pentaradial body plan. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 280, 20131197.

Zamora, S., 2013. Morphology and phylogenetic interpretation of a new Cambrian edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) from Spain. Palaeontology, 56, 421-431.

Zamora, S., Rahman, I. A. and Smith, A. B., 2013. The ontogeny of cinctans (stem-group Echinodermata) as revelaed by a new genus, Graciacystis, from the Middle Cambrian of Spain. Palaeontology, 56, 399-410.


Blake, D. B. and Portell, R. W., 2011. Kionaster petersonae, n. gen. and sp. (Asteroidea), the first fossil occurrence of the Asterodiscididae, from the Miocene of Florida. Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 130, 25-42.

Smith, A. B., 2011. Gymnodiadema and the Jurassic roots of the Arbacioida (stirodont echinoids). Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 130, 155-171.

Sumrall, C. D. and Zamora, S., 2011. Ordovician edrioasteroids from Morocco: faunal exchanges across the Rheic Ocean. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 9, 425-454.


Kroh, A. and Smith, A. B., 2010. The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8, 147-212.

Mah, C., Nizinski, M. and Lundsten, L., 2010. Phylogenetic revision of the Hippasterinae (Goniasteridae; Asteroidea): systematics of deep sea corallivores, including one new genus and three new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 160, 266-301.


Smith, A. B. and Zamora, S., 2009. Rooting phylogenies of problematic fossil taxa; a case study using cinctans (stem-group echinoderms). Palaeontology, 52, 803-821.


Mah, C., 2007. Phylogeny of the Zoroasteridae (Zorocallina; Forcipulatida): evolutionary events in deep-sea Asteroidea displaying Palaeozoic features. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 150, 177-210.

Saucede, T., Mooi, R. and David, B., 2007. Phylogeny and origin of Jurassic irregular echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Geological Magazine, 144, 333-359.

Smith, A. B., 2007. Intrinsic versus extrinsic biases in the fossil record: contrasting the fossil record of echinoids in the Triassic and Early Jurassic using sampling data, phylogenetic analysis, and molecular clocks. Paleobiology, 33, 310-323.


Sumrall, C. D. and Gahn, F. J., 2006. Morphological and systematic reinterpretation of two enigmatic edrioasteroids (Echinodermata) from Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 43, 497-507.


Stockley, B., Smith, A. B., Littlewood, T., Lessios, H. A. and Mackenzie-Dodds, J. A., 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of spatangoid sea urchins (Echinoidea): taxon sampling density and congruence between morphological and molecular estimates. Zoologica Scripta, 34, 447-468.


Cohen, B. L., Ameziane, N., Eleaume, M. and Richer de Forges, B., 2004. Crinoid phylogeny: a preliminary analysis (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Marine Biology, 144, 605-617.

Smith, A. B., 2004. Phylogeny and systematics of holasteroid echinoids and their migration into the deep-sea. Palaeontology, 47, 123-150.

Solovjev, A. N. and Markov, A. V., 2004. The early evolution of irregular echinoids. In Heinzeller, T. and Nebelsick, J. H. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Echinoderm Conference, Munich, Germany 6-10 October 2003. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Leiden, p551-556.

Villier, L., Neraudeau, D., Clavel, B., Neumann, C. and David, B., 2004. Phylogeny of Early Cretaceous spatangoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) and taxonomic implications. Palaeontology, 47, 265-292.
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Blake, D. B. and Hagdorn, H., 2003. The Asteroidea (Echinodermata) of the Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic of Germany). Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 77, 23-58.

Jeffery, C. H. and Emlet, R. B., 2003. Macroevolutionary consequences of developmental mode in temnopleurid echinoids from the Tertiary of southern Australia. Evolution, 57, 1031-1048.
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Jeffery, C. H., Emlet, R. B. and Littlewood, D. T. J., 2003. Phylogeny and evolution of developmental mode in temnopleurid echinoids. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 28, 99-118.

Kammer, T. W. and Gahn, F. J., 2003. Primitive cladid crinoids from the early Osagean Burlington Limestone and the phylogenetics of Mississippian species of Cyathocrinites. Journal of Paleontology, 77, 121-138.
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Ruta, M., 2003. A species-level supertree for stylophoran echinoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 48, 559-568.


Gahn, F. J. and Kammer, T. W., 2002. The cladid crinoid Barycrinus from the Burlington Limestone (early Osagean) and the phylogenetics of Mississippian botryocrinids. Journal of Paleontology, 76, 123-133.
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Sumrall, C. D. and Brett, C. E., 2002. A revision of Novacystis hawkesi Paul and Bolton 1991 (Middle Silurian: Glyptocystitida, Echinodermata) and the phylogeny of early callocystitids. Journal of Paleontology, 76, 733-740.
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Bodenbender, B. E. and Fisher, D. C., 2001. Stratocladistic analysis of blastoid phylogeny. Journal of Paleontology, 75, 351-369.

Kerr, A. M. and Kim, J., 2001. Phylogeny of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) inferred from morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 133, 63-81.

Lefebvre, B., 2001. A critical comment on 'ankyroids' (Echinodermata, Stylophora). Geobios, 34, 597-627.
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Smith, A. B., 2001. Probing the cassiduloid origins of clypeasteroid echinoids using stratigraphically restricted parsimony analysis. Paleobiology, 27, 392-404.
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Lefebvre, B., 2000. A new mitrate (Echinodermata, Stylophora) from the Tremadoc of Shropshire (England) and the origin of the Mitrocystitida. Journal of Paleontology, 74, 890-906.
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Mah, C. L., 2000. Preliminary phylogeny of the forcipulatacean Asteroidea. American Zoologist, 40, 375-381.

Smith, A. B. and Anzalone, L., 2000. Loriolella, a key taxon for understanding the early evolution of irregular echinoids. Palaeontology, 43, 303-324.


Jeffery, C. H., 1999. A reappraisal of the phylogenetic relationships of somaliasterid echinoids. Palaeontology, 42, 1027-1041.
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Ausich, W. I., 1998. Early phylogeny and subclass division of the Crinoidea (Phylum Echinodermata). Journal of Paleontology, 72, 499-510.
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Ausich, W. I., 1998. Phylogeny of Arenig to Caradoc crinoids (Phylum Echinodermata) and suprageneric classification of the Crinoidea. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, 9, 1-36.
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Dean, J. and Smith, A. B., 1998. Palaeobiology of the primitive Ordovician pelmatozoan echinoderm Cardiocystites. Palaeontology, 41, 1183-1194.

Jeffery, C. H., 1998. Carrying on regardless: the echinoid genus Cyclaster at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Lethaia, 31, 149-157.


Parsley, R. L., 1997. The echinoderm classes Stylophora and Homoiostelea: non Calcichordata. In Waters, J. A. and Maples, C. G. (eds.) Geobiology of Echinoderms. The Paleontological Society, Knoxville, p225-248.

Ruta, M., 1997. A new mitrate from the Lower Ordovician of southern France. Palaeontology, 40, 363-383.

Ruta, M. and Theron, J. N., 1997. Two Devonian mitrates from South Africa. Palaeontology, 40, 201-243.
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Smith, A. B., Littlewood, D. T. J. and Wray, G. A., 1996. Comparative evolution of larval and adult life-history stages and small subunit ribosomal RNA amongst post-Palaeozoic echinoids. In Harvey, P. H., Leigh Brown, A. J., Maynard, S. J. and Nee, S. (eds.) New Uses for New Phylogenies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p234-254.


Bodenbender, B. E., 1995. Morphological, crystallographic, and stratigraphic data in cladistic analyses of blastoid phylogeny. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, 29, 201-257.
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Littlewood, D. T. J. and Smith, A. B., 1995. A combined morphological and molecular phylogeny for sea urchins (Echinoidea: Echinodermata). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B, 347, 213-234.

Peterson, K. J., 1995. A phylogenetic test of the calcichordate scenario. Lethaia, 28, 25-38.

Smith, A. B., Paterson, G. L. J. and Lafay, B., 1995. Ophiuroid phylogeny and higher taxonomy: morphological, molecular and palaeontological perspectives. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114, 213-243.


Milsom, C. V., Simms, M. J. and Gale, A. S., 1994. Phylogeny and palaeobiology of Marsupites and Uintacrinus. Palaeontology, 37, 595-607.

Suter, S. J., 1994. Cladistic analysis of cassiduloid echinoids trying to see the phylogeny for the trees. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 53, 31-72.
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Simms, M. J. and Sevastopulo, G. D., 1993. The origin of articulate crinoids. Palaeontology, 36, 91-109.

Smith, A. B. and Wright, C. W., 1993. British Cretaceous Echinoids. Part 3, Echinothoroida. Stirodonta 2 (Hemicidaroida, Arbacioida and Phymosomatoida, part 1). Monograph of the Palaeontolographical Society, 593, 199-267.


Daley, P. E. J., 1992. Two new cornutes from the Lower Ordovician of Shropshire and southern France. Palaeontology, 35, 127-148.

Daley, P. E. J., 1992. The anatomy of the solute Girvanicystis batheri (?Chordata) from the Upper Ordovician of Scotland and a new species of Girvanicystis from the Upper Ordovician of South Wales. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 105, 353-375.

Smith, A. B., Lafay, B. and Christen, R., 1992. Comparative variation of morphological and molecular evolution through geologic time: 28S ribosomal RNA versus morphology in echinoids. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B, 338, 365-382.


Cripps, A. P., 1991. A cladistic analysis of the cornutes (stem chordates). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 102, 333-366.
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Smith, A. B. and Hollingworth, N. T. J., 1990. Tooth structure and phylogeny of the Upper Permian echinoid Miocidaris keyserlingi. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 48, 47-60.


Cripps, A. P., 1988. A new species of stem-group chordate from the Upper Ordovician of Northern Ireland. Palaeontology, 31, 1053-1077.

Jacobs, H. T., Balfe, P., Cohen, B. L., Farquharson, A. and Comito, L., 1988. Phylogenetic implications of genome rearrangement and sequence evolution in echinoderm mitochondrial DNA. In Paul, C. R. C. and Smith, A. B. (eds.) Echinoderm Phylogeny and Evolutionary Biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, p121-137.

Smiley, S., 1988. The phylogenetic relationships of holothurians: a cladistic analysis of the extant echinoderm classes. In Paul, C. R. C. and Smith, A. B. (eds.) Echinoderm Phylogeny and Evolutionary Biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, p69-84.

Smith, A. B., 1988. Patterns of diversification and extinction in early Palaeozoic echinoderms. Palaeontology, 31, 799-828.

Smith, A. B., 1988. Fossil evidence for the relationships of extant echinoderm classes and their times of divergence. In Paul, C. R. C. and Smith, A. B. (eds.) Echinoderm Phylogeny and Evolutionary Biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, p85-97.

Strathman, R. R., 1988. Larvae, phylogeny, and von Baer's Law. In Paul, C. R. C. and Smith, A. B. (eds.) Echinoderm Phylogeny and Evolutionary Biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, p53-68.


Smith, A. B. and Arbizu, M. A., 1987. Inverse larval development in a Devonian edrioasteroid from Spain and the phylogeny of Agelacrinitinae. Lethaia, 20, 49-62.
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Smith, A. B., 1985. Cambrian eleutherozoan echinoderms and the early diversification of edrioasteroids. Palaeontology, 28, 715-756.

Last updated 6th April 2011.